About The Author
Author Biograhy: Ekaterina Mironova is a co-founder of CBD Life Mag and an avid blogger on the Hemp, CBD and fashion subjects. Ekaterina is also on the panel of the CBD reviewers and she most enjoys CBD gummies. Ekaterina has developed a real interest in CBD products after she started taking CBD tincture oil to help her ease her anxiety that was part-and-parcel of her quick-paced city career. When Ekaterina realised just how effective CBD is, she has founded CBD Life Magazine along with some of her friends.
When she is not blogging, you are likely to see Ekaterina in front of her souped up Alienware laptop gaming or delving into the world of Cryptocurrency. Ekaterina also boasts a very large collection of Penny Black Posts stamps and silver hammered Medieval coins. Ekaterina’s other interest include swimming, painting, traveling, shopping, spending a good time with her friends and helping animals in need.
Ekaterina has featured in some of the leading publications such as Vanity Fair, Country Living, Vogue, Elle, New York Times and others.
CBD Life Mag
- 4 tips to preserve youth beauty allueur
- Allueur cbd lip balm cbd chapstick
- CBD Oil And Coconut Oil Work Well Together – Know Why?
- Merchandise Featured In This Article
- Know the Benefits of CBD For Elderly People
- Advice on The Therapeutic Benefits and Side Effects Of CBD
- Is It Safe to Take CBD With Other Drugs?
- Cbd Oil For Parkinsons: Can It Assist? Possibly, According To Analysis
- Provide Your Family Their Daily Dose Of CBD By Dishing Up CBD-Infused Foods
- Eat Chocolate To Stay Healthy – Make CBD Chocolate At Home Using CBD Oil
If you’re a beginner with CBD, you might be interested in one of the simplest ways to take it if you have Parkinson’s disease. Plus, the analysis suggests CBD can do nothing to assist deal with PD once it begins. Researchers have discovered that CBD could possibly help forestall Parkinson’s illness, but at present, research has solely been carried out in animals. Studies have found that each cannabis and CBD alone may help with sleep disturbances. In fact, up to 50 percent of individuals with PD experience this complication. Cannabis has several hundred of those compounds, though just a few are well known and extensively studied.
A 2010 study said that in excessive instances of levodopa-induced dyskinesia, the opposed results may outweigh the advantages a patient gets from utilizing the drug as a treatment. Current analysis exhibits that CBD has great potential within the remedy of Parkinson’s illness. However, additional studies need to be carried out to establish CBD’s benefits for Parkinson’s disease. One such examine looked at 22 sufferers who engaged within the medical use of hashish, which contains CBD. In this case, improvements had been famous in regard to tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia half-hour after using medical marijuana.
Another cannabinoid is CBD or cannabidiol which doesn’t trigger the “excessive” that THC does. These cannabinoids come in varied varieties from dried leaves that may be smoked, oil that’s sprayed underneath the tongue, and tablets that may be swallowed.
4 tips to preserve youth beauty allueur
For the purposes of legality of CBD, you will need to pay attention to the distinction between hemp-derived CBD and marijuana-derived CBD. As previously mentioned, CBD is derived from both marijuana vegetation and hemp vegetation.
Since that point, research has also connected CBD with offering benefits for Parkinson’s illness. CBD is different than different cannabinoids discovered within the marijuana plant which are known for producing the excessive commonly related to medical marijuana use. This contains tetrahydrocannabinol and a similar cannabinoid, tetrahydrocannabivarin . Both THC and THCV can produce this excessive impact, whereas CBD does not. CBD is brief for cannabidiol, a chemical compound found inside the cannabis plant that binds to cannabinoid receptors positioned within the physique’s endocannabinoid system. Also, although it usually seems after the age of 50, roughly one in ten Parkinson’s disease sufferers are recognized at a youthful age. Parkinson’s disease is each continual and progressive, making this movement disorder one that’s lengthy-lasting, whereas additionally worsening as time progresses.
One of the most tough choices an individual with Parkinson’s disease will face is deciding what drugs to make use of to deal with the disease. The choice is a perform of a number of factors together with the particular symptoms being handled, the medicine’s efficacy, and price. In order to purchase these products, one should have a legal state ID. Studies on CBD have shown that this form of therapy is often tolerated properly by users and is regarded as secure.
This makes it an attractive, pure way for a lot of to help deal with their Parkinson’s illness symptoms. What’s more, is that as a result of CBD is a natural compound from the Cannabis sativa plant, utilizing it may additionally depart you facet impact-free, not like many prescription medicines. Unfortunately, non-public health insurance firms won’t cover the price of CBD products aside from one product. This is Epidiolex, which as mentioned above, is FDA-approved for epilepsy. Not solely may the cannabinoid ease symptoms of the degenerative disease itself, it might ease unwanted effects of the most common therapy. CBD appears to be greatest suited to address these nonmotor points and potential unwanted side effects, rather than motor issues. One examine with greater than 200 folks discovered that that use of hashish had a excessive effectiveness on nonmotor signs.
Allueur cbd lip balm cbd chapstick
One thing to remember is that by the point an individual begins displaying indicators of Parkinson’s disease, about 60 p.c of the dopamine-receptive neurons within the brain are already destroyed. But human research that analyzed whether CBD might assist forestall Parkinson’s didn’t return important results. More research is required to grasp why the compound would possibly protect animals’ brains but — as far as we will tell — not human brains. It may cause hallucinations, delirium, and delusions, and it’s extra common in individuals within the later stages of the illness.
For now, it is best to consult together with your doctor—or a cannabis physician—to resolve the best path ahead. Finally, a latest research discovered that CBD can work as an inverse agonist on the G-coupled protein receptor generally known as GPR6. By appearing on this receptor, CBD can increase the amount of dopamine within the brain, permitting for extra muscle management and probably scale back Parkinson’s related tremors. In a study performed on animal check subjects, researchers found cannabinoids, including CBD, inhibited the reuptake of dopamine, making more of the neurotransmitter available within the mind. Dopamine is vital in signaling the beginning of motion, passing data between the brain and body. Dopamine-producing neurons within the substantia nigra area of the brain are destroyed by Parkinson’s, leading to a dopamine deficit of 60-eighty%. It is therefore held by many scientists that it’s the discount of dopamine that results in decreased management of bodily motion.
In some cases, folks suffering from Parkinson’s disease can also have symptoms of psychosis, ranging in hallucinations to vivid desires and illusions. In analysis out of University of São Paulo in Brazil, sufferers got a dose of CBD starting out at a hundred and fifty milligrams per day along with their present treatment plan of remedy for 4 weeks. In June of 2018, the first FDA-permitted CBD treatment, Epidiolex, was permitted to treat two rare kinds of epilepsy. While there are presently no CBD medications accredited by the FDA particularly for Parkinson’s illness, one shouldn’t be discouraged, as analysis is ongoing. This is nice news for persons with dementia as a result of the elimination of amyloid beta allows brain cells to survive. Amyloid beta not solely kills neurons, it also causes irritation and contributes to reminiscence loss and different cognitive points. This kind of plaque is found in the brains of some persons with Parkinson’s illness dementia.
CBD Oil And Coconut Oil Work Well Together – Know Why?
One of the most important considerations patients have with using CBD oil is whether or not or not it’s legal. Psychology Today stresses that, while many people think that the passing of the 2018 Farm Bill legalized CBD federally, this isn’t precisely the case. Therefore, it can be tough to determine the precise impact CBD can provide to Parkinson’s patients. For instance, one 2018 study published by Frontiers in Pharmacology shares that CBD helps by increasing levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide, an agonist of cannabinoid receptors. It can also be thought to help in other processes discovered helpful for Parkinson’s sufferers, such as these associated to serotonin receptors like 5-HT1A, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, and extra.
While unlawful on the federal stage, medical marijuana is authorized in 33 states and the District of Columbia for sure situations. However, state legal guidelines differ within the circumstances the medical marijuana can be used for, the formulations allowed and whether or not physician certification is required. By federal legislation, physicians can’t prescribe marijuana or cannabinoids. In states that require certification from a qualified doctor, it may be challenging to discover a certified doctor since many physicians elect to not apply for certification. I actually have additionally used dietary supplements like CoQ10 however didn’t find it to make any difference.
These lively components work together to provide most therapeutic advantages to customers. really helpful, as its use of all the ingredients of the cannabis plant is believed to supply an entourage effect. Further research needs to be made on CBD use, particularly as a preventive therapy for Parkinson’s disease.
You could expertise a delay in results should you take CBD in a capsule or tablet, however this type may be perfect for people with tremors that stop them from properly Liv dosing a liquid. The effects of CBD-infused lotions and lotions can take a number of hours to develop, however may be useful to deal with ache or stiffness in palms and joints.
Just 30% of the products purchased contained a concentration of CBD inside 10% of what the label indicated. For the best and most consistently produced CBD products, locally sourced medical CBD is recommended. This is as a result of these merchandise are held to a higher degree of lab testing for power, as well as impurities.
The best place to purchase CBD wealthy medical cannabis is from state licensed medical dispensaries. Marijuana-derived CBD and medical cannabis is legally out there by prescription in an additional 28 states . One also can go for CBD vape products , CBD inhalers, or smoke high CBD hemp strains.
Products Featured In This Article
But states with extra restrictive laws could limit your buy choices. Check out our state-by-state guide on hashish laws within the U.S. for more info. The best CBD oil for managing Parkinson’s illness will rely upon the needs of the affected person. The loss of muscle management is commonly probably the most distressing and complex symptom of Parkinson’s illness to handle. It is essential hemp and cbd news to note, nevertheless, that edibles and capsules can be sluggish to show effects. Both of those delivery codecs should go through the digestive system and be processed by the liver before being absorbed into the bloodstream. If you wish to work CBD oil into your day by day routine to cut back Parkinson’s symptoms, a capsule, tincture, or edible could be the easiest method to take action.
The results of CBD and THC , both cannabinoids that are extracted from cannabis sativa crops, are sometimes confused. That mentioned, both CBD and THC are identified to have therapeutic properties, and a few researchers believe a mix of the 2 cannabinoids are very efficient as a method of therapy. Said one other way, CBD-rich hashish usage does not have any thoughts-altering results. Given this reality, CBD is a desirable choice for those that don’t wish to feel “excessive” from THC or sure prescribed drugs. This means CBD potentially responds inside the receptors to offer therapeutic effects against the signs of PD.
Know the Benefits of CBD For Elderly People
The problem in preventive PD therapy is that it’s difficult to diagnose the disease in its early phases. The researchers did not observe dangerous side effects from the usage of CBD. cbdMD’sCBD oil tinctures are made utilizing only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are supplied in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for day by day use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a constructed-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be simple to transport and discreet to make use of. Perfect for anyone who are in search of CBD products that promote a wholesome physique and mind.
Discover the Best #CBD Products for #Christmas Presents in the #UK— JustCBD (@JustCbd) December 4, 2020
The best CBD goods are not only #natural, but they are also #legal throughout the United Kingdom.
Relax, it's #JustCBDhttps://t.co/DrxU8b3yJ4
I decided to proceed utilizing levodopa because it was providing me with a lot-wanted aid from my symptoms. Over time, I’ve tried different drugs either in combination with or rather than levodopa like Azilect, Stalevo, entacapone, and amantadine. Due to the side effects or the drug’s ineffectiveness, I stopped taking all of those except the amantadine. I continue taking levodopa however have switched to Rytary which is the extended-launch model of levodopa. I have additionally had deep mind stimulation surgical procedure because of the dyskinesia I experienced with levodopa. After my analysis, the subsequent problem was deciding tips on how to treat my illness?
Capsules especially are easily labored into a daily vitamin or treatment routine, and will provide the same dose of CBD oil each time you are taking them. Restless legs syndrome is a neurological disorder that causes an uncontrollable and painful motion of the legs. SabaiDee CBD products are tested each in-home and by impartial laboratories to confirm the standard of each batch. Use CBD for Your Skin Care to Obtain Happy, Healthy Skin Use and perceived effectiveness of complementary therapies in Parkinson’s illness.
Advice on The Therapeutic Benefits and Side Effects Of CBD
These are the signs that may dramatically have an effect on an individual’s high quality of life. It rarely causes unwanted effects, and the ones that do occur tend to be delicate. They embody tiredness, modifications in appetite, and diarrhea or nausea. However, vaping may damage lung tissue or aggravate symptoms like coughing or sore throat.
However, some studies counsel CBD may have some optimistic effects, especially when it comes to nonmotor symptoms, similar to despair, anxiety, and sleep issues. CBD hasn’t been utilized in individuals with Parkinson’s illness long-term, and analysis into the advantages of this cannabinoid only started a number of many years ago. CBD doesn’t have the psychoactive advantages of tetrahydrocannabinol , hashish’s more famous cannabinoid. If you’re interested in attempting CBD for Parkinson’s disease, talk to your physician about it. They will be capable of point you to the most recent research and provide suggestions on how much you need to take. They may even be able to monitor your progress with the rest of your care team in order to come to a conclusion if this is the right treatment plan for you. Since Parkinson’s disease can take some time to correctly diagnose when the signs are already prevalent, utilizing CBD as soon as recognized may not provide much profit.
The FDA has not approved medical marijuana and classifies it as a Schedule 1 drug which is a drug that has been discovered to haven’t any acceptable medical use and a excessive potential for abuse. This is likely one of the reasons why more analysis has not been carried out and why organizations like the MJF Foundation have known as for a reclassification of marijuana. The primary cannabinoid is THC which causes the “high” the person experiences with marijuana.
If cannabidiol is able to cut back irritation within the brain of Parkinson’s sufferers, it may stop the degenerative cycle perpetuating the demise of dopamine-producing neurons. If you are struggling to regulate the effects of Parkinson’s disease, or are experiencing disruptive unwanted side effects due to your current treatment plan, you could wish to consider using CBD oil. There are many potential benefits that may include using CBD oil to treat Parkinson’s disease and it’s signs. What confuses the problem even more is that each state has set its personal statutes regarding hemp, medical marijuana, and CBD.
Instead, the Farm Bill only legalized hemp, which is the fibrous stalk of the marijuana plant. Technically, all different elements of the plant are nonetheless unlawful beneath the Controlled Substances Act.
Before adding CBD to a affected person’s medicine regimen, it’s essential to consult a medical professional first. When the illness is diagnosed spf 55 sunscreen, it often has already progressed severely. CBD vape pens – The inhalation of CBD provides virtually instantaneous effects.
Cbd Oil For Parkinsons: Can It Help? Maybe, In Accordance With Research
According to the Alzheimer’s Association, approximately 50 to 80% of people with PD go on to develop PDD. On common, the event of dementia is 10 years after the onset of PD. Parkinson’s is a situation with no remedy and as such, typically the normal forms of remedy fall brief. CBD oil may be able to help; as more research turns into out there, a definitive answer will emerge. Read the label.Always read the elements list on any product before you purchase. Typically, all a CBD oil wants are cannabidiol and a service oil like MCT oil, hemp seed, or coconut oil.
Before you start utilizing CBD oil, however, it is very important talk to your physician. While CBD oil is usually safe, it could work together with some drugs, growing the probability of experiencing the adverse results. CBD oil may be able to help handle a few of Parkinson’s symptoms with out producing unwanted effects like these, although research on the subject remains to be in its infancy. The lack of bodily management that comes with the development of Parkinson’s is due to a drop in ranges of the neurotransmitter dopamine available in the mind. The mostly prescribed medicines for balancing these dopamine ranges are levodopa and carbidopa, usually out there in a combination tablet, tablet, or liquid form.
Because of the various potential benefits of CBD for individuals with Parkinson’s, researchers have instructed utilizing the compound may help improve high quality of life. This is a major concern for individuals living with Parkinson’s disease.
A examine found that cannabinoids, like CBD and tetrahydrocannabinol , would possibly cut back ache. CBD has several indirect anti-inflammatory effects on the central nervous system, which amplify its therapeutic results . Research has demonstrated that cannabinoids, like cannabidiol, can interfere with the release of cytokines.
CBD oil drops and inctures gained’t produce effects as fast as a CBD vape, but their benefits sometimes last longer than vaped cannabidiol . It is important to remember that the knowledge presented on this web page is meant to serve only as an informational information and may by no means be thought of medical recommendation. Always seek the advice of your physician earlier than making any modifications to your therapy routine. For these in search of an alternative choice to commonplace prescription medications, and a way to successfully cut back the consequences of Parkinson’s illness, CBD oil will be the answer. CBD canine treats include CBD oil which research have shown to possess several therapeutic advantages. According to the research talked about above, 300 mg of CBD was properly-tolerated in Parkinson’s disease patients. Preclinical trials, observational research, and medical trials on human and animal fashions have revealed CBD’s therapeutic effects on Parkinson’s illness.
Parkinson’s disease can influence cognitive perform and reminiscence, significantly in these whose signs progress to Parkinson’s illness dementia. Because of this, medical marijuana with each THC and CBD may not be recommended, as it could possibly impair pondering and brain function much more so. More analysis out of Brazil suggests CBD can enhance the overall high quality of life of these with Parkinson’s disease. Unfortunately, there has not been a lot analysis on how efficient marijuana is in treating PD signs. The few trials which were conducted have shown that medical marijuana might deal with problems with both motor and non-motor signs, but more analysis must be done. Unfortunately, there isn’t a one single dose of CBD oil that’s efficient for Parkinson’s disease.
Parts of the brain that produce dopamine, which is responsible for sending messages to the physique in order to direct movement, become broken or die. This ends in tremors, muscle stiffness, the inability to make use of facial expressions, and bother balancing. With extra states legalizing it, there will proceed to be a large demand for medical marijuana. I determined to make use of CBD oil to seek out out what, if any, benefit it offers. I was hesitant at first as a result of excessive cost and lack of proof past some anecdotal evidence that it does assist relieve a number of motor and non-motor signs .
Eat Chocolate To Stay Healthy – Make CBD Chocolate At Home Using CBD Oil
By interacting with one or both of these receptors, CBD might delay tremor improvement in addition to have protecting neurological advantages. But as seen with the above research, there isn’t any uniform approach or conclusion on this remedy methodology. This implies that patients may react in a different way to utilizing CBD, some having large success while others seeing little difference. With the legalization of medical marijuana, many states are approving the use of it in a non-traditional approach to treat the signs of certain situations, together with Parkinson’s disease. Marijuana has two major parts to it—tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol . Both could help with nausea and muscle ache or spasms, however not like THC, CBD doesn’t provide the “excessive” feeling marijuana is mostly known for.
Sleep disruption and a scarcity of quality sleep is a severe concern for folks with Parkinson’s disease. Vivid dreams or nightmares, in addition to movement throughout sleep, is widespread. While medicines can be found to deal with Parkinson’s psychosis, some individuals have wondered if CBD may be useful. But animal studies have advised CBD alone has benefits for reducing pain and irritation, two components that can affect individuals with PD frequently.
The Top #CBD Products for Christmas— JustCBD (@JustCbd) December 2, 2020
Even if you must do all of your #holiday shopping online this year, there is no shortage of ideal #Christmas presents available for your family and friends…
Relax. it's #JustCBDhttps://t.co/ZCldMvKmfl
With early detection combined with using CBD collectively the potential of lowering motion-associated signs increases. Parkinson’s disease is a neurological condition, affecting the nervous system.
This leads to a variety of movement issues, which may embrace tremors, lack of facial features, problem balancing, and stiffness of muscular tissues. In addition, PD might become Parkinson’s illness dementia , which impacts one’s cognitive functioning, such as the power to recollect issues, make good decisions, and listen. CBD can be gaining momentum as a treatment for other health-associated situations together with Alzheimer’s illness, epilepsy, nervousness, and continual ache. Studies are ongoing, however returns indicate CBD is an exciting alternative to conventional medicines.
This method of inhalation allows customers to really feel the consequences of CBD almost immediately and usually lasts a few hours. While some folks might believe that CBD is a sedative, the truth is that it actually produces alertness without negatively impacting one’s sleep. Even if one takes a dose of 600mg of pure CBD, which is a really high dose, it still doesn’t produce a sedating effect. However, one may take a CBD with a terpene known as myrcene, which is produced by a number of cannabis strains, that has sedating properties. Due to a scarcity of regulation in terms of CBD merchandise, there is no guarantee that a product containing a certain number of CBD mg is the same as another stating it has the same mg dosage of CBD. Therefore, there may be an absence of consistency from one product to the next. A researcher at Penn Medicine in Philadelphia discovered that nearly 70% of CBD products sold on the internet are beneath labeled or over labeled in relation to the concentration of CBD inside the product.
I’ve additionally considered alternative medicines like medical marijuana which recently turned legal in my state. Persons with PD may also undergo from melancholy, nervousness, apathy, irritability, ache, and difficulty sleeping. As mentioned beforehand, many individuals with Parkinson’s illness go on to develop Parkinson’s disease Allueur Hemp and CBD Infused Skincare Products dementia. For fast aid or dosage control, CBD oil drops and CBD vape oils are the way to go. Both of those formats bypass the digestive system and go to work virtually immediately. CBD vape oils will produce effects the fastest, however their advantages gained’t last as long as an edible, for instance.
However, this too is a small study, conducted in simply 10 individuals. Larger studies will be needed to verify or refute what this research finally finds. Researchers from the University of Colorado are utilizing that drug to analyze its advantages on individuals with Parkinson’s-related tremor.
The Bundle Special Gift Box comes with two 3000mg CBD Gummy Jars and your choice of JustCBD Hoodie or Blanket and it is ON SALE! From $150 down to $119— JustCBD (@JustCbd) December 4, 2020
Offer valid until Monday at midnight EST.
Check out our #Giveaway
Relax, it's #justcbd pic.twitter.com/oAacbYpYUJ
Any enhance in dopamine levels would counteract the regular decrease of dopaminergic neurons skilled by those afflicted with PD. Exciting information in regards to the therapeutic effects of CBD for individuals with PD abounds.
Once again, don’t start utilizing CBD oil for Parkinson’s disease without consulting a medical skilled. Depending on the development of Parkinson’s, a few of these codecs could also be simpler to manage than others. The functioning and mobility of the Parkinson’s affected person are essential to consider when making a choice relating to delivery format.
- What’s extra, is that because CBD is a pure compound from the Cannabis sativa plant, using it may additionally depart you facet effect-free, in contrast to many prescription medicines.
- Potential mind and nervous system advantages have garnered a lot of consideration in recent years, especially for people with neurological issues like Parkinson’s disease .
- One research inspecting the effect of neuroinflammation on degenerative issues, together with Parkinson’s Disease, drew a connection between inflammation and the dying of neurons that launch dopamine.
- This leads to tremors, muscle stiffness, the shortcoming to make use of facial expressions, and trouble balancing.
- Please observe, dementia with Lewy bodies presents with symptoms just like PDD.
- One is taking a medicine to assist better handle motor function.
Levodopa, typically called L-dopa, is transformed to dopamine by the mind; carbidopa aids in this conversion by defending levodopa from being broken down before it reaches the brain. In most cases, bodily symptoms don’t manifest till the disease is properly established. These bodily symptoms could be the most troublesome to stay with, making it almost inconceivable to hold out the most primary daily duties. Human and animal studies have shown that CBD could be useful in alleviating arthritis signs, such as ache, inflammation, nervousness, and sleep problems.
Parkinson’s disease is challenging to treat as a result of it’s exhausting to detect in its early levels. The United States Food and Drug Administration has not permitted the usage Selene of CBD in treating Parkinson’s illness. One of the numerous symptoms of Parkinson’s disease is the prevalence of sleep problems.
One small 2009 examine in people with Parkinson’s disease and psychotic symptoms found that the compound did reduce the severity of symptoms. Some of the most typical remedies for Parkinson’s illness may cause drugs-related tremors or uncontrolled muscle movements. Treatment with the drugs gained’t make it higher — and it might make it worse. A small study of 22 individuals with Parkinson’s found that utilizing hashish helped improve ache. However, this study was carried out with medical marijuana, which contains each CBD and THC.
I found out in a short time that there didn’t seem to be a consensus on when one ought to start levodopa as opposed to other drugs, like Azilect. The concern was that beginning levodopa remedy early in one’s treatment would improve the chance of dyskinesia.
However, CBD can work together with prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Talk to your physician before taking CBD, particularly if you’re on drugs that include a “grapefruit warning.” CBD and grapefruit have an analogous effect on certain enzymes associated to drug metabolism.
CBD could have therapeutic effects on Parkinson’s illness , particularly on the non-motor symptoms associated with the neurodegenerative illness. Another piece of research, this one published in the journal Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, signifies that many scientific trials have been conducted on this space.